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Welcome to my Website!

This site showcases a short instruction project that I prepared for my class, “Multimedia in Technology Applications” (LTEC 5220) at the University of North Texas.  It gives step by step instructions on clearing a toilet clog.

This class is a part of my masters degree program in Learning Technologies.  I will complete the program in May, 2018, with a concentration in Instructional Systems Design.  My career focus is in undergraduate distance and hybrid learning.
Read more about me here.



Multimedia Educational Technology

Instructional designers today have at their disposal many powerful media tools for producing text, imagery, audio, and video.  However, if introduced in a haphazard manner, these tools can create material that is detrimental to learning.  What is required is a strong instructional design that has clear educational goals and an overall strategy to blend content with objects for delivering the educational message.  Hede (2002) proposes an integrated model for multimedia in learning which includes input, cognitive processing, learner dynamics, and learner control.

Thorough knowledge of cognitive processing is essential to the proper introduction of media affordances.  Ertmer and Newby (1993) describe three different schools of thought as it relates to instructional design:  Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructionism.  Today most scholars of human cognition favor Constructionism, which identifies the learner as the key actor in the learning process, and not a passive receiver of information.  This is where designers using multimedia need to be careful, because media that overwhelms the instruction can remove the learner from the center of the system, and put them in the position of watching the media without constructing knowledge.

It is very important for media to be used in a way that does not detract from the content.  Color theory is very important.  Designers need to take into account the ways in which colors are complementary to each other, and the difference between primary, secondary, and tertiary colors (Cousins, 2012).  Harsh contrasts can be distracting in many situations, however in certain occasions a disruptive color scheme may be useful in grabbing the learner’s attention.

The concept of dual coding is key when planning the use of media.  Humans have two distinct ways in which they perceive stimuli, visuospatial and phonological (Braden, 1996).  It is important that text and visuals are not disrupted by competing audio speech or sound.  Otherwise the impact on the learner is to increase the cognitive load and reduce the learner’s ability to process what is being presented.

In summary, media must be seen as just one set of tools in the toolbox of the instructional designer.  The use of media must be placed in the context of a well thought-out design that takes into account our current understanding of human cognition.


Braden, R. A. (1996). Visual literacy. Handbook of research for educational communications and technology3(5), 491-520.

Cousins, C. (2012). Principles of Color and the Color Wheel. Retrieved from https://tympanus.net/codrops/2012/02/28/principles-of-color-and-the-color-wheel/

Erntner, P. & Newby, T. (1993) . Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructionism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-71.

Hede, A. (2002). An integrated model of multimedia effects on learning. Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia.